Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)

A tanker whose size is above 200,000 dwt and has a typical cargo capacity of about 300,000 dwt.

Vessel operating costs

The costs of operating a vessel that is incurred during a charter, primarily consisting of crew wages and associated costs, insurance premiums, lubricants and spare parts, and repair and maintenance costs. Vessel operating costs exclude fuel and port charges, which are known as “voyage expenses.” For a time charter, the vessel owner pays vessel operating costs. For a bareboat charter, the charterer pays vessel operating costs.

Voyage charter

A voyage charter involves the carriage of a specific amount and type of cargo from specific load port(s) to specific discharge port(s), subject to various cargo handling terms. Most of these charters are of a single voyage nature between two specific ports, as trading patterns do not encourage round voyage trading. The owner of the vessel receives one payment derived by multiplying the tons of cargo loaded on board by the cost per cargo ton, as agreed to transport that cargo between the specific ports. The owner is responsible for the payment of all expenses including voyage, operating and capital costs of the vessel. The charterer is typically responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports.

Voyage expenses

Expenses incurred due to a vessel’s traveling from a loading port to a discharging port, such as fuel (bunker) cost, port expenses, agent’s fees, canal dues and extra war risk insurance, as well as commissions.