Glossary

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Aframax tanker

A tanker ranging in size from 85,000 dwt to 120,000 dwt.

Ballast

A voyage during which the vessel is not laden with cargo.

Bareboat charter

A charter of a vessel under which the vessel-owner is usually paid a fixed daily or monthly rate for a certain period of time during which the charterer is responsible for the ship operating expenses and voyage expenses of the vessel and for the management of the vessel. In this case, all voyage related costs, including vessel fuel, or bunker, and port dues as well as all vessel operating costs, such as day-to-day operations, maintenance, crewing and insurance are paid by the charterer. A bareboat charter is also known as a "demise charter" or a "time charter by demise" and involves the use of a vessel usually over longer periods of time ranging over several years The owner of the vessel receives monthly charterhire payments on a per day basis and is responsible only for the payment of capital costs related to the vessel.

Bunkers

Fuel oil used to operate a vessel's engines, generators and boilers.

Capesize

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 100,000 to 199,999 dwt.

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.

Charter

The hiring of a vessel, or use of its carrying capacity, for either (1) a specified period of time or (2) to carry a cargo for a fixed fee from a loading port to a discharging port. The contract for a charter is called a charterparty.

Charter rate

The amount of money agreed between the charterer and the vessel-owner accrued on a daily or monthly basis that is used to calculate the vessel’s charterhire.

Charterer

The party that hires a vessel pursuant to a charter.

Charterhire

Money paid to the vessel-owner by a charterer for the use of a vessel under a time charter or bareboat charter. Such payments are usually made during the course of the charter every 15 or 30 days in advance or in arrears by multiplying the daily charter rate times the number of days and, under a time charter only, subtracting any time the vessel was deemed to be off-hire. Under a bareboat charter such payments are usually made monthly and are calculated on a 360 or 365 day calendar year basis.

Classification society

An independent society that certifies that a vessel has been built and maintained according to the society’s rules for that type of vessel and complies with the applicable rules and regulations of the country in which the vessel is registered, as well as the international conventions which that country has ratified. A vessel that receives its certification is referred to as being "in class" as of the date of issuance.

Clean petroleum products

Liquid products refined from crude oil, whose color is less than or equal to 2.5 on the National Petroleum Association scale. Clean products include naphtha, jet fuel, gasoline and diesel/gasoil.

Coal

The seaborne coal trade is comprised of two different types of coal; steam coal (which is used for electricity generation and industrial uses), and coking coal (which is the key ingredient for steelmaking).

Commercial Management or Commercially Managed

The management of the employment, or chartering, of a vessel and associated functions, including seeking and negotiating employment for vessels, billing and collecting revenues, issuing voyage instructions, purchasing fuel, and appointing port agents.

Commercial Pool

A commercial pool is a group of similar size and quality vessels with different shipowners that are placed under one administrator or manager. Pools offer participants opportunities for scheduling and other operating efficiencies such as multi-legged charters and Contracts of Affreightment and other operating efficiencies.

Contract of Affreightment

A contract of affreightment, or COA, relates to the carriage of specific quantities of cargo with multiple voyages over the same route and over a specific period of time which usually spans a number of years. A COA does not designate the specific vessels or voyage schedules that will transport the cargo, thereby providing both the charterer and ship owner greater operating flexibility than with voyage charters alone. The charterer has the flexibility to determine the individual voyage scheduling at a future date while the ship owner may use different ships to perform these individual voyages. As a result, COAs are mostly entered into by large fleet operators such as pools or ship owners with large fleets of the same vessel type. All of the ship's operating, voyage and capital costs are borne by the ship owner while the freight rate normally is agreed on a per cargo ton basis.

Crude Oil

Oil in its natural state that has not been refined or altered.

Deadweight ton or “dwt.”

A unit of a vessel's capacity for cargo, fuel oil, stores and crew, measured in metric tons of 1,000 kilograms. A vessel's dwt or total deadweight is the total weight necessary to submerge the vessel to its maximum permitted draft.

Demurrage

Additional revenue paid to the shipowner on its Voyage Charters for delays experienced in loading and/or unloading cargo, which are not deemed to be the responsibility of the shipowner, calculated in accordance with specific Charter terms.

Dirty petroleum products

Liquid products refined from crude oil, whose color is greater than 2.5 on the National Petroleum Association scale. Dirty products usually require heating during a voyage, because their viscosity or waxiness makes discharge difficult at ambient temperatures.

Draft

Vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the vessel's keel.

Drydocking

The removal of a vessel from the water for inspection and/or repair of those parts of a vessel which are below the water line. During drydockings, which are required to be carried out periodically, certain mandatory classification society inspections are carried out and relevant certifications issued. Drydockings are generally required once every 30 to 60 months.

Grains

The seaborne trade of grains consists primarily of wheat, coarse grains (such as corn, barley, oats, and rye) and soya bean/meal.

Gross ton

A unit of weight equal to 2,240 pounds.

Handymax tanker

A product tanker in approximately the 25,000 dwt to 40,000 dwt size range with internally coated tanks to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning when switching between cargoes.

Hull

Shell or body of a vessel.

IMO

International Maritime Organization, a United Nations agency that issues international regulations and standards for seaborne transportation.

Intermediate survey

The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor which takes place between two and three years before and after each special survey for such vessel pursuant to the rules of international conventions and classification societies.

Iron Ore

It is the primary ingredient for the production of steel and is the largest single commodity shipped on dry bulk vessels.

ISM Code

International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, which, among other things, requires vessel-owners to obtain a safety management certification for each vessel they manage.

ISPS Code

International Security Code for Ports and Ships, which enacts measures to detect and prevent security threats to vessels and ports.

Kamsarmax

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 82,000 to 83,000 dwt.

LR1 (Long Range Product Carrier)

A product tanker in approximately the 55,000 dwt to 80,000 dwt size range with internally coated tanks to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning when switching between cargoes.

LR2 (Long Range 2 Product Carrier)

A product tanker in approximately the 80,000 dwt to 120,000 dwt size range with internally coated tanks to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning when switching between cargoes.

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships by accident and by routine operations.

Metric ton

A unit of weight equal to 1,000 kilograms.

Minor bulks

There are several dry bulk goods such as phosphate rock, fertilizers, bauxite, steel products, forest products, nickel ore, sugar, salt and many others that comprise the minor bulks category.

MR (Medium Range Product Carrier)

A product Tanker in approximately the 40,000 dwt to 55,000 dwt size range with internally coated tanks to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning when switching between cargoes.

Newbuilding

A new vessel under construction or just completed.

Off-hire

The period during which a vessel is unable to perform the services for which it is required under a time charter. Off-hire periods typically include days spent undergoing repairs and drydocking, whether or not scheduled.

OPA

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 of the United States (as amended).

Panamax

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 65,000 to 99,999 dwt.

Panamax tanker

A tanker ranging in size from 55,000 dwt to 85,000 dwt. The term is derived from the maximum length, breadth and draft capable of passing fully loaded through the Panama Canal.

Period charter

A period charter is an industry term referring to both time and bareboat charters. These charters are referred to as period charters or period market charters due to use of the vessel by the charterer over a specific period of time.

Post Panamax

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 85,000 to 99,999 dwt.

Product tanker

A tanker designed for the carriage of refined petroleum products whose cargo tanks are usually coated with epoxy based paint to facilitate the cleaning of the tanker between the carriage of different cargoes and to prevent product contamination and hull corrosion. A product tanker typically has multiple cargo tanks capable of handling different cargoes simultaneously. The vessel may have equipment designed for the loading and unloading of cargoes with a high viscosity.

Protection and indemnity (or P&I) insurance

Insurance obtained through mutual associations (referred to as “Clubs”) formed by vessel owners to provide liability insurance protection against a large financial loss by one member by contribution towards that loss by all members. To a great extent, the risks are reinsured.

Refined petroleum products

Refined crude oil products, such as fuel oils, gasoline and jet fuel.

Scrapping

The disposal of old or damaged vessel tonnage by way of sale as scrap metal.

Sister ship

Vessels of the same type and specification.

SOLAS

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974, as amended, adopted under the auspices of the IMO.

Special survey

An extensive inspection of a vessel by classification society surveyors that must be completed within five years. Special surveys require a vessel to be drydocked.

Spot charter

A spot charter is an industry term referring to both voyage and trip time charters. These charters are referred to as spot charters or spot market charters due to their short term duration, consisting mostly of a single voyage between one load port and one discharge port.

Spot market

The market for the immediate chartering of a vessel, usually for single voyages.

Strict liability

Liability that is imposed without regard to fault.

Suezmax tanker

Tanker ranging in size from 120,000 dwt to 200,000 dwt. The term is derived from the maximum length, breadth and draft capable of passing fully loaded through the Suez Canal.

Supramax

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 50,000 to 59,999 dwt.

Technical Management

The management of the operation of a vessel, including physically maintaining the vessels, maintaining necessary certifications, and supplying necessary stores, spares, and lubricating oils. Responsibilities also generally include selecting, engaging and training crew, and arranging necessary insurance coverage.

Time charter

A time charter is a contract under which a charterer pays a fixed daily hire rate on a semi-monthly or monthly basis for a fixed period of time for use of the vessel. Subject to any restrictions in the charter, the charterer decides the type and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and unloading. The charterer pays the voyage related expenses such as fuel, canal tolls, and port charges. The vessel-owner pays all vessel operating costs such as the management expenses and crew costs as well as for the capital costs of the vessel. Any delays at port or during the voyages are the responsibility of the charterer, except for certain specific exceptions such as loss of time arising from vessel breakdown and routine maintenance.

Time charter equivalent (TCE) rates

Time charter equivalent, or TCE, rates, are a standard industry measure of the average daily revenue performance of a vessel. The TCE rate achieved on a given voyage is expressed in U.S. dollars/day and is generally calculated by subtracting voyage expenses, including bunkers and port charges, from voyage revenue and dividing the net amount (time charter equivalent revenues) by the number of days in the period.

Ton-Mile Demand

The calculation of the average distance of each trading route multiplied by the volumes moving on that route. A greater increase in long haul movements compared to short haul movements, the higher increase in ton-mile demand.

Trip time charter

A trip time charter is a short term time charter where the vessel performs a single voyage between load port(s) and discharge port(s) and the charterer pays a fixed daily hire rate on a semi-monthly basis for use of the vessel. The difference between a trip time charter and a voyage charter is only in the form of payment for use of the vessel and the respective financial responsibilities of the charterer and vessel-owner as described under time charter and voyage charter.

Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)

A tanker whose size is above 200,000 dwt and has a typical cargo capacity of about 350,000 dwt.

Ultramax

A dry bulk vessel ranging from 60,000 to 64,999 dwt.

Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)

A tanker whose size is above 200,000 dwt and has a typical cargo capacity of about 300,000 dwt.

Very Large Ore Carrier

A dry bulk vessel 200,000 dwt and above.

Vessel operating costs

The costs of operating a vessel that is incurred during a charter, primarily consisting of crew wages and associated costs, insurance premiums, lubricants and spare parts, and repair and maintenance costs. Vessel operating costs exclude fuel and port charges, which are known as “voyage expenses.” For a time charter, the vessel owner pays vessel operating costs. For a bareboat charter, the charterer pays vessel operating costs.

Voyage charter

A voyage charter involves the carriage of a specific amount and type of cargo from specific load port(s) to specific discharge port(s), subject to various cargo handling terms. Most of these charters are of a single voyage nature between two specific ports, as trading patterns do not encourage round voyage trading. The owner of the vessel receives one payment derived by multiplying the tons of cargo loaded on board by the cost per cargo ton, as agreed to transport that cargo between the specific ports. The owner is responsible for the payment of all expenses including voyage, operating and capital costs of the vessel. The charterer is typically responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports.

Voyage expenses

Expenses incurred due to a vessel's traveling from a loading port to a discharging port, such as fuel (bunker) cost, port expenses, agent's fees, canal dues and extra war risk insurance, as well as commissions.

Worldscale

Industry name for the Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale published annually by the Worldscale Association as a rate reference for shipping companies, brokers, and their customers engaged in the bulk shipping of oil in the international markets. Worldscale is a list of calculated rates for specific voyage itineraries for a standard vessel, as defined, using defined voyage cost assumptions such as vessel speed, fuel consumption, and port costs. Actual market rates for voyage charters are usually quoted in terms of a percentage of Worldscale.